# Steel Designer's Manual, 6th Edition

6tti Edition

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CuHinietiori

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Editors

BuIck Oavisan &

Sraham W, Owens

DESIGNERS'

MANUAL

Blackwill

Publishing

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for specialist consultancy,

for a nunnber of reasons:

Expertise, Independence,

Specialist skills

SS

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Contents

Introduction to the sixth edition xi

Contributors XV

Notation XXV

SECTION 1: DESIGN SYNTHESIS

1 Single-storey buildings 1

Range of building types; Anatomy of structure; Loading; Design of

common structural forms

2 Multi-storey buildings 42

Introduction; Factors influencing choice of form; Anatomy of structure;

Worked example

3 Industrial steelwork 94

Range of structures and scale of construction; Anatomy of structure;

Loading; Structure in its wider context

4 Bridges 124

Introduction; Selection of span; Selection of type; Codes of practice;

Traffic loading; Other actions; Steel grades; Overall stability and

articulation; Initial design; Worked example

5 Other structural applications of steel 169

Towers and masts; Space frames; Cable structures; Steel in residential

construction; Atria

SECTION 2: STEEL TECHNOLOGY

6 Applied metallurgy of steel 222

Introduction; Chemical composition; Heat treatment; Manufacture

and effect on properties; Engineering properties and mechanical tests;

Fabrication effects and service performance; Summary

7 Fracture and fatigue 248

Fracture; Linear elastic fracture mechanics; Elastic-plastic fracture

mechanics; Materials testing for fracture properties; Fracture-safe

design; Fatigue

8 Sustainability and steel construction 275

Introduction; Economic impacts; Social impacts; Environmental impacts;

Embodied energy; Operational energy; Summary

iii

iv Contents

SECTION 3: DESIGN THEORY

9 Introduction to manual and computer analysis 286

Introduction; Element analysis; Line elements; Plates; Analysis of

skeletal structures; Finite element method

10 Beam analysis 325

Simply-supported beams; Propped cantilevers; Fixed, built-in or

encastre beams; Continuous beams; Plastic failure of single members;

Plastic failure of propped cantilevers

11 Plane frame analysis 342

Formulae for rigid frames; Portal frame analysis

12 Applicable dynamics 354

Introduction; Fundamentals of dynamic behaviour; Distributed

parameter systems; Damping; Finite element analysis; Dynamic testing

SECTION 4: ELEMENT DESIGN

13 Local buckling and cross-section classification 373

Introduction; Cross-sectional dimensions and moment-rotation

behaviour; Effect of moment-rotation behaviour on approach to design

and analysis; Classification table; Economic factors

14 Tension members 383

Introduction; Types of tension member; Design for axial tension;

Combined bending and tension; Eccentricity of end connections; Other

considerations; Cables; Worked examples

15 Columns and struts 402

Introduction; Common types of member; Design considerations;

Cross-sectional considerations; Compressive resistance; Torsional and

flexural-torsional buckling; Effective lengths; Special types of strut;

Economic points; Worked examples

16 Beams 431

Common types of beam; Cross-section classification and moment

capacity, M^, Basic design; Lateral bracing; Bracing action in bridges -

U-frame design; Design for restricted depth; Cold-formed sections as

beams; Beams with web openings; Worked examples

17 Plate girders 470

Introduction; Advantages and disadvantages; Initial choice of cross-

section for plate girders in buildings; Design of plate girders used in

buildings to BS 5950: Part 1: 2000; Initial choice of cross-section for

plate girders used in bridges; Design of steel bridges to BS 5400: Part 3;

Worked examples

Contents V

18 Members with compression and moments 511

Occurrence of combined loading; Types of response - interaction;

Effect of moment gradient loading; Selection of type of cross-section;

Basic design procedure; Cross-section classification under compression

and bending; Special design methods for members in portal frames;

Worked examples

19 Trusses 541

Common types of trusses; Guidance on overall concept; Effects of

load reversal: Selection of elements and connections; Guidance on

methods of analysis; Detailed design considerations for elements;

Factors dictating the economy of trusses; Other applications of trusses;

Rigid-jointed Vierendeel girders; Worked examples

20 Composite deck slabs 577

Introduction; Deck types; Normal and lightweight concretes; Selection

of floor system; Basic design; Fire resistance; Diaphragm action; Other

constructional features; Worked example

21 Composite beams 601

Application of composite beams; Economy; Guidance on span-to-

depth ratios; Types of shear connection; Span conditions; Analysis of

composite section; Basic design; Worked examples

22 Composite columns 651

Introduction; Design of encased composite columns; Design of concrete-

filled tubes; Worked example

SECTION 5: CONNECTION DESIGN

23 Bolts 671

Types of bolt; Methods of tightening and their application; Geometric

considerations; Methods of analysis of bolt groups; Design strengths;

Tables of strengths

24 Welds and design for welding 685

Advantages of welding; Ensuring weld quality and properties by the

use of standards; Recommendations for cost reduction; Welding

processes; Geometric considerations; Methods of analysis of weld groups;

Design strengths

25 Plate and stiffener elements in connections 711

Dispersion of load through plates and flanges; Stiffeners; Prying forces;

Plates loaded in-plane

26 Design of connections 721

Introduction; Simple connections; Moment connections; Summary;

Worked examples

vi Contents

27 Foundations and holding-down systems 816

Foundations; Connection of the steelwork; Analysis; Holding-down

systems; Worked examples

SECTION 6: OTHER ELEMENTS

28 Bearings and joints 842

Introduction; Bearings; Joints; Bearings and joints - other

considerations

29 Steel piles 867

Bearing piles; Sheet piles; Pile driving and installation; Durability

30 Floors and orthotropic decks 906

Steel plate floors; Open-grid flooring; Orthotropic decks

SECTION 7: CONSTRUCTION

31 Tolerances 917

Introduction; Standards; Implications of tolerances; Fabrication

tolerances; Erection tolerances

32 Fabrication 948

Introduction; Economy of fabrication; Welding; Bolting; Cutting;

Handling and routeing of steel; Quality management

33 Erection 971

Introduction; The method statement; Planning; Site practices; Site

fabrication and modifications; Steel decking and shear connectors;

Quality control; Cranes and craneage; Safety; Special structures

34 Fire protection and fire engineering 1013

Introduction; Standards and building regulations; Structural

performance in fire; Developments in fire-safe design; Methods of

protection; Fire testing; Fire engineering

35 Corrosion and corrosion prevention 1030

The corrosion process; Effect of the environment; Design and

corrosion; Surface preparation; Metallic coatings; Paint coatings;

Application of paints; Weather-resistant steels; The protective

treatment specification

36 The Eurocodes 1053

The Eurocodes - background and timescales; Conformity with EN

1990 - basis of design; EC3 Design of steel structures; EC4 Design

of composite steel and concrete structures; Implications of the

Eurocodes for practice in the UK; Conclusions

Contents vii

Appendix

Steel technology

Elastic properties of steel 1071

European standards for structural steels 1072

Design theory

Bending moment, shear and deflection tables for

cantilevers 1077

simply-supported beams 1079

built-in beams 1087

propped cantilevers 1094

Bending moment and reaction tables for continuous beams 1102

Influence lines for continuous beams 1105

Second moments of area of

two flanges 1116

rectangular plates 1118

a pair of unit areas 1122

Geometrical properties of plane sections 1124

Plastic modulus of

two flanges 1127

rectangles 1128

Formulae for rigid frames 1130

Element design

Explanatory notes on section dimensions and properties, bolts and welds

1 General 1148

2 Dimensions of sections 1149

3 Section properties 1151

4 Bolts and welds 1160

Tables of dimensions and gross section properties

Universal beams 1166

Universal columns 1172

Joists 1175

Universal bearing piles 1178

Hot-finished:

circular hollow sections 1181

square hollow sections 1183

rectangular hollow sections 1185

Cold-formed:

circular hollow sections 1187

square hollow sections 1190

rectangular hollow sections 1192

Asymmetric beams 1195

Parallel flange channels 1197

viii Contents

Two parallel flange channels:

laced 1201

back to back 1202

Equal angles 1203

Unequal angles 1204

Equal angles: back to back 1206

Unequal angles: long legs back to back 1207

Castellated universal beams 1208

Structural tees cut from universal beams 1214

Structural tees cut from universal columns 1218

Extracts from BS 5950: Part 1: 2000

Deflection limits (Section two: Table 8) 1220

Design strengths for steel (Section three: Table 9) 1221

Limiting width-to-thickness ratios for sections other than CHS and

RHS (Section three: Table 11) 1222

Limiting width-to-thickness ratios for CHS and RHS (Section three:

Table 12) 1223

Bending strengths (Section four: Tables 16 and 17) 1224

Strut table selection (Section four: Table 23) 1227

Compressive strength (Section four: Table 24) 1228

Connection design

Bolt data

Hole sizes 1236

Boh strengths 1236

Spacing, end and edge distances 1237

Maximum centres of fasteners 1237

Maximum edge distances 1238

Back marks in channel flanges 1240

Back marks in angles 1240

Cross centres through flanges 1241

Bolt capacities

Non-preloaded ordinary bolts in S275 1242

Non-preloaded countersunk bolts in S275 1244

Non-preloaded HSFG bolts in S275 1246

Preloaded HSFG bolts in S275: non-slip in service 1247

Preloaded HSFG bolts in S275: non-slip under factored loads 1248

Preloaded countersunk HSFG bolts in S275: non-slip in service 1249

Preloaded countersunk HSFG bolts in S275: non-slip under

factored loads 1250

Non-preloaded ordinary bolts in S355 1251

Non-preloaded countersunk bolts in S355 1253

Non-preloaded HSFG bolts in S355 1255

Preloaded HSFG bolts in S355: non-slip in service 1256

Preloaded HSFG bolts in S355: non-slip under factored loads 1257

Contents ix

Preloaded countersunk HSFG bolts in S355: non-slip in service 1258

Preloaded countersunk HSFG bolts in S355: non-slip under factored

loads 1259

Bolt and weld groups

Bolt group moduli - fasteners in the plane of the force 1260

Bolt group moduli - fasteners not in the plane of the force 1264

Weld group moduli - welds in the plane of the force 1266

Capacities of fillet welds 1270

Weld group moduli - welds not in the plane of the force 1271

Other elements

Sheet pile sections

Larssen sections 1274

Frodingham sections 1275

Box sheet piles 1276

High modulus piles 1277

H-piles 1279

Floor plate design tables 1280

Construction

Fire information sheets 1282

Section factors for

universal beams 1302

universal columns 1303

circular hollow sections 1304

rectangular hollow sections 1305

rectangular hollow sections (square) 1306

Minimum thickness of spray protection 1307

Basic data on corrosion 1308

Codes and standards

British and European standards covering the design and construction of

steelwork 1311

Index 1323

Clients choose the SCI

for specialist consultancy,

for a nunnber of reasons:

Expertise, Independence,

Specialist skills

SS

Specialist Consultancy: +44 @I344 872776

Email: specialist@steel-sci.com

www.steel-sci.org/consultancy

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Introduction to sixth edition

At the instigation of the Iron and Steel Federation, the late Bernard Godfrey began

work in 1952 on the first edition of the Steel Designers' Manual. As principal author

he worked on the manuscript almost continuously for a period of two years. On

^ many Friday evenings he would meet with his co-authors, Charles Gray, Lewis Kent

ej and W.E. Mitchell to review progress an...