Steel Designer's Manual, 6th Edition


6tti Edition
Ни EiHl
CuHinietiori
liailttrte
Editors
BuIck Oavisan &
Sraham W, Owens
DESIGNERS'
MANUAL
Blackwill
Publishing
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for a nunnber of reasons:
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SS
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Contents
Introduction to the sixth edition xi
Contributors XV
Notation XXV
SECTION 1: DESIGN SYNTHESIS
1 Single-storey buildings 1
Range of building types; Anatomy of structure; Loading; Design of
common structural forms
2 Multi-storey buildings 42
Introduction; Factors influencing choice of form; Anatomy of structure;
Worked example
3 Industrial steelwork 94
Range of structures and scale of construction; Anatomy of structure;
Loading; Structure in its wider context
4 Bridges 124
Introduction; Selection of span; Selection of type; Codes of practice;
Traffic loading; Other actions; Steel grades; Overall stability and
articulation; Initial design; Worked example
5 Other structural applications of steel 169
Towers and masts; Space frames; Cable structures; Steel in residential
construction; Atria
SECTION 2: STEEL TECHNOLOGY
6 Applied metallurgy of steel 222
Introduction; Chemical composition; Heat treatment; Manufacture
and effect on properties; Engineering properties and mechanical tests;
Fabrication effects and service performance; Summary
7 Fracture and fatigue 248
Fracture; Linear elastic fracture mechanics; Elastic-plastic fracture
mechanics; Materials testing for fracture properties; Fracture-safe
design; Fatigue
8 Sustainability and steel construction 275
Introduction; Economic impacts; Social impacts; Environmental impacts;
Embodied energy; Operational energy; Summary
iii
iv Contents
SECTION 3: DESIGN THEORY
9 Introduction to manual and computer analysis 286
Introduction; Element analysis; Line elements; Plates; Analysis of
skeletal structures; Finite element method
10 Beam analysis 325
Simply-supported beams; Propped cantilevers; Fixed, built-in or
encastre beams; Continuous beams; Plastic failure of single members;
Plastic failure of propped cantilevers
11 Plane frame analysis 342
Formulae for rigid frames; Portal frame analysis
12 Applicable dynamics 354
Introduction; Fundamentals of dynamic behaviour; Distributed
parameter systems; Damping; Finite element analysis; Dynamic testing
SECTION 4: ELEMENT DESIGN
13 Local buckling and cross-section classification 373
Introduction; Cross-sectional dimensions and moment-rotation
behaviour; Effect of moment-rotation behaviour on approach to design
and analysis; Classification table; Economic factors
14 Tension members 383
Introduction; Types of tension member; Design for axial tension;
Combined bending and tension; Eccentricity of end connections; Other
considerations; Cables; Worked examples
15 Columns and struts 402
Introduction; Common types of member; Design considerations;
Cross-sectional considerations; Compressive resistance; Torsional and
flexural-torsional buckling; Effective lengths; Special types of strut;
Economic points; Worked examples
16 Beams 431
Common types of beam; Cross-section classification and moment
capacity, M^, Basic design; Lateral bracing; Bracing action in bridges -
U-frame design; Design for restricted depth; Cold-formed sections as
beams; Beams with web openings; Worked examples
17 Plate girders 470
Introduction; Advantages and disadvantages; Initial choice of cross-
section for plate girders in buildings; Design of plate girders used in
buildings to BS 5950: Part 1: 2000; Initial choice of cross-section for
plate girders used in bridges; Design of steel bridges to BS 5400: Part 3;
Worked examples
Contents V
18 Members with compression and moments 511
Occurrence of combined loading; Types of response - interaction;
Effect of moment gradient loading; Selection of type of cross-section;
Basic design procedure; Cross-section classification under compression
and bending; Special design methods for members in portal frames;
Worked examples
19 Trusses 541
Common types of trusses; Guidance on overall concept; Effects of
load reversal: Selection of elements and connections; Guidance on
methods of analysis; Detailed design considerations for elements;
Factors dictating the economy of trusses; Other applications of trusses;
Rigid-jointed Vierendeel girders; Worked examples
20 Composite deck slabs 577
Introduction; Deck types; Normal and lightweight concretes; Selection
of floor system; Basic design; Fire resistance; Diaphragm action; Other
constructional features; Worked example
21 Composite beams 601
Application of composite beams; Economy; Guidance on span-to-
depth ratios; Types of shear connection; Span conditions; Analysis of
composite section; Basic design; Worked examples
22 Composite columns 651
Introduction; Design of encased composite columns; Design of concrete-
filled tubes; Worked example
SECTION 5: CONNECTION DESIGN
23 Bolts 671
Types of bolt; Methods of tightening and their application; Geometric
considerations; Methods of analysis of bolt groups; Design strengths;
Tables of strengths
24 Welds and design for welding 685
Advantages of welding; Ensuring weld quality and properties by the
use of standards; Recommendations for cost reduction; Welding
processes; Geometric considerations; Methods of analysis of weld groups;
Design strengths
25 Plate and stiffener elements in connections 711
Dispersion of load through plates and flanges; Stiffeners; Prying forces;
Plates loaded in-plane
26 Design of connections 721
Introduction; Simple connections; Moment connections; Summary;
Worked examples
vi Contents
27 Foundations and holding-down systems 816
Foundations; Connection of the steelwork; Analysis; Holding-down
systems; Worked examples
SECTION 6: OTHER ELEMENTS
28 Bearings and joints 842
Introduction; Bearings; Joints; Bearings and joints - other
considerations
29 Steel piles 867
Bearing piles; Sheet piles; Pile driving and installation; Durability
30 Floors and orthotropic decks 906
Steel plate floors; Open-grid flooring; Orthotropic decks
SECTION 7: CONSTRUCTION
31 Tolerances 917
Introduction; Standards; Implications of tolerances; Fabrication
tolerances; Erection tolerances
32 Fabrication 948
Introduction; Economy of fabrication; Welding; Bolting; Cutting;
Handling and routeing of steel; Quality management
33 Erection 971
Introduction; The method statement; Planning; Site practices; Site
fabrication and modifications; Steel decking and shear connectors;
Quality control; Cranes and craneage; Safety; Special structures
34 Fire protection and fire engineering 1013
Introduction; Standards and building regulations; Structural
performance in fire; Developments in fire-safe design; Methods of
protection; Fire testing; Fire engineering
35 Corrosion and corrosion prevention 1030
The corrosion process; Effect of the environment; Design and
corrosion; Surface preparation; Metallic coatings; Paint coatings;
Application of paints; Weather-resistant steels; The protective
treatment specification
36 The Eurocodes 1053
The Eurocodes - background and timescales; Conformity with EN
1990 - basis of design; EC3 Design of steel structures; EC4 Design
of composite steel and concrete structures; Implications of the
Eurocodes for practice in the UK; Conclusions
Contents vii
Appendix
Steel technology
Elastic properties of steel 1071
European standards for structural steels 1072
Design theory
Bending moment, shear and deflection tables for
cantilevers 1077
simply-supported beams 1079
built-in beams 1087
propped cantilevers 1094
Bending moment and reaction tables for continuous beams 1102
Influence lines for continuous beams 1105
Second moments of area of
two flanges 1116
rectangular plates 1118
a pair of unit areas 1122
Geometrical properties of plane sections 1124
Plastic modulus of
two flanges 1127
rectangles 1128
Formulae for rigid frames 1130
Element design
Explanatory notes on section dimensions and properties, bolts and welds
1 General 1148
2 Dimensions of sections 1149
3 Section properties 1151
4 Bolts and welds 1160
Tables of dimensions and gross section properties
Universal beams 1166
Universal columns 1172
Joists 1175
Universal bearing piles 1178
Hot-finished:
circular hollow sections 1181
square hollow sections 1183
rectangular hollow sections 1185
Cold-formed:
circular hollow sections 1187
square hollow sections 1190
rectangular hollow sections 1192
Asymmetric beams 1195
Parallel flange channels 1197
viii Contents
Two parallel flange channels:
laced 1201
back to back 1202
Equal angles 1203
Unequal angles 1204
Equal angles: back to back 1206
Unequal angles: long legs back to back 1207
Castellated universal beams 1208
Structural tees cut from universal beams 1214
Structural tees cut from universal columns 1218
Extracts from BS 5950: Part 1: 2000
Deflection limits (Section two: Table 8) 1220
Design strengths for steel (Section three: Table 9) 1221
Limiting width-to-thickness ratios for sections other than CHS and
RHS (Section three: Table 11) 1222
Limiting width-to-thickness ratios for CHS and RHS (Section three:
Table 12) 1223
Bending strengths (Section four: Tables 16 and 17) 1224
Strut table selection (Section four: Table 23) 1227
Compressive strength (Section four: Table 24) 1228
Connection design
Bolt data
Hole sizes 1236
Boh strengths 1236
Spacing, end and edge distances 1237
Maximum centres of fasteners 1237
Maximum edge distances 1238
Back marks in channel flanges 1240
Back marks in angles 1240
Cross centres through flanges 1241
Bolt capacities
Non-preloaded ordinary bolts in S275 1242
Non-preloaded countersunk bolts in S275 1244
Non-preloaded HSFG bolts in S275 1246
Preloaded HSFG bolts in S275: non-slip in service 1247
Preloaded HSFG bolts in S275: non-slip under factored loads 1248
Preloaded countersunk HSFG bolts in S275: non-slip in service 1249
Preloaded countersunk HSFG bolts in S275: non-slip under
factored loads 1250
Non-preloaded ordinary bolts in S355 1251
Non-preloaded countersunk bolts in S355 1253
Non-preloaded HSFG bolts in S355 1255
Preloaded HSFG bolts in S355: non-slip in service 1256
Preloaded HSFG bolts in S355: non-slip under factored loads 1257
Contents ix
Preloaded countersunk HSFG bolts in S355: non-slip in service 1258
Preloaded countersunk HSFG bolts in S355: non-slip under factored
loads 1259
Bolt and weld groups
Bolt group moduli - fasteners in the plane of the force 1260
Bolt group moduli - fasteners not in the plane of the force 1264
Weld group moduli - welds in the plane of the force 1266
Capacities of fillet welds 1270
Weld group moduli - welds not in the plane of the force 1271
Other elements
Sheet pile sections
Larssen sections 1274
Frodingham sections 1275
Box sheet piles 1276
High modulus piles 1277
H-piles 1279
Floor plate design tables 1280
Construction
Fire information sheets 1282
Section factors for
universal beams 1302
universal columns 1303
circular hollow sections 1304
rectangular hollow sections 1305
rectangular hollow sections (square) 1306
Minimum thickness of spray protection 1307
Basic data on corrosion 1308
Codes and standards
British and European standards covering the design and construction of
steelwork 1311
Index 1323
Clients choose the SCI
for specialist consultancy,
for a nunnber of reasons:
Expertise, Independence,
Specialist skills
SS
Specialist Consultancy: +44 @I344 872776
Email: specialist@steel-sci.com
www.steel-sci.org/consultancy
steel Designers' Manual - 6th Edition B003)
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Introduction to sixth edition
At the instigation of the Iron and Steel Federation, the late Bernard Godfrey began
work in 1952 on the first edition of the Steel Designers' Manual. As principal author
he worked on the manuscript almost continuously for a period of two years. On
^ many Friday evenings he would meet with his co-authors, Charles Gray, Lewis Kent
ej and W.E. Mitchell to review progress an...


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