Meritt - Building Design and Construction Handbook_6th


BUILDING DESIGN
AND CONSTRUCTION
HANDBOOK
Frederick S. Merritt (Deceased) Editor
Jonathan T. Ricketts Editor
Sixth Edition
McGRAW-HILL
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Building design and construction handbook / Frederick S. Merritt, editor,
Jonathan T. Ricketts, editor.---6th ed.
p.
cm.
ISBN 0-07-041999-X
1. Building---Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Merritt, Frederick S.
II. Ricketts, Jonathan T.
TH151.B825 2000
690---dc21
00-058388
Copyright 2001, 1994, 1982, 1975, 1965, 1958 by The McGraw-Hill Com-
panies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part
of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any
means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written
permission of the publisher.
1234567890 DOC/DOC 06543210
ISBN 0-07-041999-X
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ABOUT THE EDITORS
Frederick S. Merritt (deceased) was a consulting engineer for many years, with
experience in building and bridge design, structural analysis, and construction man-
agement. A Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and a Senior Mem-
ber of ASTM, he was a former senior editor of Engineering News-Record and an
author / editor of many books, including McGraw-Hill's Standard Handbook for
Civil Engineers and Structural Steel Designer's Handbook.
Jonathan T. Ricketts is a consulting engineer with broad experience in general
civil engineering environmental design and construction management. A registered
engineer in several states, he is an active member of the American Society of Civil
Engineers, the National Society of Professional Engineers, the American Water
Works Association, and is coeditor of McGraw-Hill's Standard Handbook for Civil
Engineers.
v
CONTENTS
Contributors xxi
Preface xxiii
Section 1 System Fundamentals Jonathan T. Ricketts
1.1
1.1 Principles of Architecture / 1.1
1.2 Systems Design and Analysis / 1.3
1.3 Traditional Design Procedures / 1.4
1.4 Traditional Construction Procedures / 1.5
1.5 Role of the Client in Design and Construction / 1.8
1.6 Building Costs / 1.8
1.7 Major Building Systems / 1.9
1.8 Value Engineering / 1.22
1.9 Execution of Systems Design / 1.29
1.10 Building Codes / 1.36
1.11 Zoning Codes / 1.38
1.12 Other Regulations / 1.40
1.13 Systems Design by Team / 1.40
1.14 Project Peer Review / 1.41
1.15 Application of Systems Design / 1.41
Section 2 The Building Team-Managing the Building Process
Alan D. Hinklin
2.1
2.1 Professional and Business Requirements of Architectural Engineers / 2.2
2.2 Client Objectives for Buildings / 2.2
2.3 Program Definition / 2.4
2.4 Organization of the Building Team / 2.4
2.5 Client-A/E Agreement / 2.6
2.6 A/E Liability and Insurance / 2.8
2.7 Definition of Project Phases / 2.10
2.8 Scheduling and Personnel Assignments / 2.11
2.9 Accelerated Design and Construction / 2.12
2.10 Design Management / 2.13
2.11 Internal Record Keeping / 2.14
2.12 Codes and Regulations / 2.14
2.13 Permits / 2.15
2.14 Energy Conservation / 2.16
2.15 The Interior Environment / 2.16
2.16 Cost Estimating and Value Engineering / 2.18
2.17 Technical Specifications / 2.18
2.18 Upfront Documents / 2.22
2.19 Quality Control for Architects and Engineers / 2.23
2.20 Bidding and Contract Award / 2.24
2.21 Construction Scheduling / 2.24
2.22 Shop Drawing Review / 2.25
vi
CONTENTS
2.23 Role of Architect or Engineer During Construction / 2.26
2.24 Testing and Balancing of Building Systems / 2.29
2.25 Postconstruction Operation and Maintenance / 2.29
2.26 Record Drawings / 2.30
2.27 Follow-Up Interviews / 2.30
2.28 Management of Disputes / 2.30
2.29 Professional Ethics / 2.31
Section 3 Protection against Hazards David W. Mock
3.1
3.1 Risk Management / 3.1
3.2 Wind Protection / 3.3
3.3 Protection against Earthquakes / 3.11
3.4 Protection against Water / 3.15
3.5 Protection against Fire / 3.28
3.6 Lightning Protection / 3.48
3.7 Protection against Intruders / 3.50
Section 4 Building Materials David J. Akers
4.1
CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS
4.1 Types of Cementitious Materials / 4.1
4.2 Portland Cements / 4.2
4.3 Aluminous Cements / 4.5
4.4 Natural Cements / 4.6
4.5 Limes / 4.6
4.6 Low-Temperature Gypsum Derivatives / 4.8
4.7 Oxychloride Cements / 4.9
4.8 Masonry Cements / 4.9
4.9 Fly Ashes / 4.9
4.10 Silica Fume (Microsilica) / 4.10
AGGREGATES
4.11 Normal-Weight Aggregates / 4.11
4.12 Heavyweight and Lightweight Aggregates / 4.14
ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE
4.13 Chemical and Mineral Admixtures / 4.14
4.14 Fibers for Concrete Mixes / 4.18
4.15 Miscellaneous Admixtures / 4.19
MORTARS AND CONCRETES
4.16 Mortars / 4.19
4.17 Portland-Cement Concrete / 4.21
4.18 Polymer Concretes / 4.26
4.19 Concrete Masonry Units / 4.27
BURNED-CLAY UNITS
4.20 Brick-Clay or Shale / 4.28
4.21 Structural Clay Tile / 4.30
4.22 Ceramic Tiles / 4.32
4.23 Architectural Terra Cotta / 4.32
BUILDING STONES
4.24 Properties of Building Stones / 4.32
4.25 Freezing and Thawing of Stone / 4.35
CONTENTS
vii
GYPSUM PRODUCTS
4.26 Gypsumboard / 4.35
4.27 Gypsum Lath / 4.37
4.28 Gypsum Sheathing Board / 4.37
4.29 Gypsum Partition Tile or Block / 4.37
4.30 Gypsum Plank / 4.37
GLASS AND GLASS BLOCK
4.31 Window Glass / 4.38
4.32 Glass Block / 4.40
WOOD
4.33 Mechanical Properties of Wood / 4.44
4.34 Effects of Hygroscopic Properties of Wood / 4.44
4.35 Commercial Grades of Wood / 4.46
4.36 Destroyers and Preservatives / 4.48
4.37 Glues and Adhesives for Wood / 4.50
4.38 Plywood and Other Fabricated Wood Boards / 4.51
4.39 Wood Bibliography / 4.52
STEEL AND STEEL ALLOYS
4.40 Types of Irons and Steels / 4.52
4.41 Properties of Structural Steels / 4.58
4.42 Heat Treatment and Hardening of Steels / 4.61
4.43 Effects of Grain Size / 4.62
4.44 Steel Alloys / 4.62
4.45 Welding Ferrous Materials / 4.68
4.46 Effects of Steel Production Methods / 4.70
4.47 Effects of Hot Rolling / 4.72
4.48 Effects of Punching and Shearing / 4.73
4.49 Corrosion of Iron and Steel / 4.74
4.50 Steel and Steel Alloy Bibliography / 4.75
ALUMINUM AND ALUMINUM-BASED ALLOYS
4.51 Aluminum-Alloy Designations / 4.75
4.52 Finishes for Aluminum / 4.76
4.53 Structural Aluminum / 4.76
4.54 Welding and Brazing of Aluminum / 4.77
4.55 Bolted and Riveted Aluminum Connections / 4.79
4.56 Prevention of Corrosion of Aluminum / 4.79
4.57 Aluminum Bibliography / 4.80
COPPER AND COPPER-BASED ALLOYS
4.58 Copper / 4.80
4.59 Brass / 4.81
4.60 Nickel Silvers / 4.82
4.61 Cupronickel / 4.83
4.62 Bronze / 4.83
4.63 Copper Bibliography / 4.84
LEAD AND LEAD-BASED ALLOYS
4.64 Applications of Lead / 4.84
4.65 Lead Bibliography / 4.85
NICKEL AND NICKEL-BASED ALLOYS
4.66 Properties of Nickel and Its Alloys / 4.85
4.67 Nickel Bibliography / 4.86
PLASTICS
4.68 General Properties of Plastics / 4.86
4.69 Fillers and Plasticizers / 4.87
4.70 Molding and Fabricating Methods for Plastics / 4.87
viii
CONTENTS
4.71 Thermosetting Plastics / 4.88
4.72 Thermoplastic Resins / 4.90
4.73 Elastomers, or Synthetic Rubbers / 4.92
COMBINATION OF PLASTICS AND OTHER MATERIALS
4.74 High-Pressure Laminates / 4.93
4.75 Reinforced Plastics / 4.93
4.76 Laminated Rubber / 4.94
4.77 Plastics Bibliography / 4.95
PORCELAIN-ENAMELED PRODUCTS
4.78 Porcelain Enamel on Metal / 4.96
4.79 Porcelain Bibliography / 4.96
ASPHALT AND BITUMINOUS PRODUCTS
4.80 Asphalts for Dampproofing and Waterproofing / 4.97
4.81 Bituminous Roofing / 4.97
4.82 Asphalt Shingles / 4.98
4.83 Asphalt Mastics and Grouts / 4.99
4.84 Bituminous Pavements / 4.99
4.85 Asphalt Bibliography / 4.99
JOINT SEALS
4.86 Calking Compounds / 4.100
4.87 Sealants / 4.100
4.88 Gaskets / 4.101
4.89 Joint Seals Bibliography / 4.101
PAINTS AND OTHER COATINGS
4.90 Vehicles or Binders / 4.102
4.91 Pigments for Paints / 4.103
4.92 Resins for Paints / 4.104
4.93 Coatings Bibliography / 4.105
Section 5 Structural Theory Akbar Tamboli, Michael Xing,
and Mohsin Ahmed
5.1
5.1 Design Loads / 5.2
5.2 Stress and Strain / 5.17
5.3 Stresses at a Point / 5.24
5.4 Torsion / 5.28
5.5 Straight Beams / 5.30
5.6 Curved Beams / 5.52
5.7 Buckling of Columns / 5.58
5.8 Graphic-Statics Fundamentals / 5.62
5.9 Roof Trusses / 5.63
5.10 General Tools for Structural Analysis / 5.67
5.11 Continuous Beams and Frames / 5.78
5.12 Load Distribution to Bents and Shear Walls / 5.101
5.13 Finite-Element Methods / 5.110
5.14 Stresses in Arches / 5.115
5.15 Thin-Shell Structures / 5.119
5.16 Cable-Supported Structures / 5.128
5.17 Air-Stabilized Structures / 5.138
5.18 Structural Dynamics / 5.140
5.19 Earthquake Loads / 5.162
5.20 Floor Vibrations / 5.183
5.21 Wiss and Parmelee Rating Factor for Transient Vibrations / 5.185
5.22 Reiher-Meister Scale for Steady-State Vibrations / 5.186
5.23 Murray Criterion for Walking Vibrations / 5.188
CONTENTS
ix
Section 6 Soil Mechanics and Foundations Robert W. Day
6.1
6.1 Introduction / 6.1
6.2 Field Exploration / 6.3
6.3 Laboratory Testing / 6.23
6.4 Effective Stress and Stress Distribution / 6.43
6.5 Settlement Analyses / 6.50
6.6 Bearing Capacity Analyses / 6.61
6.7 Retaining Walls / 6.76
6.8 Foundations / 6.88
6.9 Foundation Excavations / 6.96
6.10 Grading and Other Site Improvement Methods / 6.97
6.11 Geosynthetics / 6.115
Section 7 Structural Steel Construction Bruce Glidden
7.1
7.1 Codes and Specifications / 7.2
7.2 Mill Materials / 7.2
7.3 Fasteners / 7.8
7.4 Fabrication / 7.17
7.5 Quality Assurance / 7.17
STRUCTURAL FRAMING SYSTEMS
7.6 Wall Bearing Framing / 7.18
7.7 Skeleton Framing / 7.20
7.8 Long-Span Framing / 7.22
7.9 Steel and Concrete Framing / 7.29
BRACING SYSTEMS
7.10 Bracing Design Considerations / 7.30
7.11 Frame Bracing / 7.31
7.12 Bracing for Individual Members / 7.36
FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS
7.13 Floor-Framing Design Considerations / 7.39
7.14 Roof Framing Systems / 7.44
DESIGN OF MEMBERS
7.15 Bases for ASD and LRFD / 7.44
7.16 Design Aids and References / 7.45
7.17 Serviceability Criteria / 7.47
7.18 Tension Members / 7.49
7.19 Columns and Other Compression Members / 7.50
7.20 Beams and Other Flexural Members / 7.57
7.21 Plate Girders / 7.67
7.22 Web or Flange Load-Bearing Stiffeners / 7.76
7.23 Bearing / 7.79
7.24 Combined Axial Compression and Bending / 7.80
7.25 Combined Axial Tension and Bending / 7.82
7.26 Composite Construction / 7.83
7.27 Members Subject to Torsion / 7.89
7.28 Members Subject to Cyclic Loading / 7.90
DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS
7.29 Combinations of Fasteners / 7.91
7.30 Load Capacity of Bolts / 7.91
7.31 Load Capacity of Welds / 7.93
7.32 B...


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